Tchogha Zanbil ziggurat (an architectural masterpiece u

Tchogha Zanbil ziggurat (an architectural masterpiece u

Tchogha Zanbil ziggurat with wonderful brick architecture:

 In Iranian architecture, bricks are not only used to fill the cracks, cover the spaces and separate them from each other. Rather, it has been used as a complete element in Iranian architecture which is well seen in the religious building of Tchogha Zanbil ziggurat (an architectural masterpiece using brick). The first method of producing clay dates back to the years before the sixth millennium BC. Among the famous works, we can point to the Hasanlu hill where raw clay has been widely used. The use of bricks in Shush and Sialk Hill of Kashan also indicates the use of this element during this era. In the temple of Tchogha Zanbil, we can see bricks that have been installed on the wall as an inscription. Iranian have played a decisive role in advancing the use of brick.

The use of bricks in post-Islamic architecture provided an opportunity to create beauty in small and medium-sized buildings. A large number of architectural masterpieces, from the post-Islamic era of Iran, were built only by building a brick kiln in remote areas and desert routes where stones and woods were not available. Various dams and bridges were built in the most remote neighborhoods. Moreover, large cities such as Neishabour and Jorjan were also built. That is why Tchogha Zanbil ziggurat is called a masterpiece of brick architecture. Brick alone is a formative mold. As a single element, each one is used in the structure. There are different types of bricks, each with its own function:

Brick as a decorative element:

Brick, as a decorative element, is effective in combining with all the constituent elements of architecture. It can also be used as a single decorative element. Brick was used in covering the domes, such as the dome of Nizam al-Molk and Taj al-Molk. It was also used in the arches in the square hall of Ardestan Grand Mosque. Brick was also used to form Mogharnas in places such as Tughral Tower and Gonbad Ali. During its heyday, bricks were used in the facade in various combinations to form a very simple but rich geometry. Prominent examples of this are the Kharqan towers near Qazvin and the Shebli Tower in Damavand.

Brick in Technical view:

Technically, the coefficient of contraction and expansion of bricks against heat and cold is such that it prevents cracks in the building. Compared to other materials, it has also the ability to store thermal energy. Good brick is solid and resistant to pressure, leakage, and frost. The general shape of bricks used in construction during different post-Islamic periods is square in various sizes. During the Ilkhani period, the bricks came in different colors such as pale yellow, ultra-yellow, reddish-yellow, dark red, and yellowish-brown (khaki). Rectangular bricks were common before Islam, but after Islam most bricks were square. Brickwork is the art of laying bricks in buildings to provide decorative facades that fit the shape and general structure of the building. Various architectural works from different post-Islamic periods of Iran are valuable examples of the art of Iranian masters in the creation of brick surfaces with the most beautiful designs and proportions. Iranian architects and artists have tried various methods in bricklaying, which are divided into several groups: Rag-chini, Gol-andazi, Gereh-sazi, colorful brickwork, Khefte-Rafteh, Khun-chini, and brickwork with patterned decorative bricks. Combining one-color bricks and creating different designs and patterns on a flat surface is called "rag-chini".

In Gol-andazi (flower arranging), bricks are arranged in such a way that different flowers are obtained. Gereh-sazi (Knotting) is one of the most delicate and difficult methods of decorative brickwork, which is done with different pieces of bricks in different sizes. Knot designs are based on simple patterns such as triangles, rectangles, squares, rhombuses, Trapezius. These designs are combined to create polygons, stars, etc. Good examples of this method can be seen in the architectural works of Iran during the Samanid and Albouyeh periods onwards, such as the decorations of the Varamin Grand Mosque (Ilkhanid era), the interesting works of the Goharshad Mosque and the Khargerd school (Timurid era).

زیگورات چغازنبیل (شاهکار معماری آجری)